Köpeklerin Evrimi

Köpek Irkları

Köpek Irkları15 ila 20 yıl arasında ortalama ömre sahip köpekler insan hayatının en çok etkilediği ve belki de insan hayatını en çok etkileyen türlerden. Şu an dünyada 400 milyon kadar köpek olduğu tahmin ediliyor. Son on beş bin yılda köpekler de insanlarla birlikte morfolojik, foksiyonel ve davranış açısından değişime uğramış durumda, bu değişimlere en büyük etkiyi de insanoğlunun yaptığı tahmin ediliyor. Bilim adamları insanoğlunun köpeklerin atası olan kurtu ilk olarak 15.000 yıl önce evcilleştirdiğini ileri sürüyorlar. Köpeklerin kurtlardan ayrışması ve yeni bir ırk veya tür olarak yolculuklarına başlamaları da bu zamana denk geliyor. DNA kanıtları ve fosil araştırmaları da köpeklerdeki çeşitlenmenin 14 ila 17 bin yıl arasında başladığını gösteriyor.

İnsanoğlu tarih yolculuğunda dünya üzerinde çeşitli çoğrafi alanlara yayılırken, yanlarında köpeklerini de taşıyan insanlar sayesinde, köpekler başka hiçbir canlının gidemeyeceği kadar uzak yerlere gidip çeşitlendiler. Eski insanların köpekleri evcilleştirmedeki ilk amaçlarının avcılıkta yardımcı olmaları, kamplarını gözetmeleri ve güvenilir yiyecekleri elde etme amaçlı olduğu sanılıyor. İleriki zamanlarda çobanlık yetenekleri, kurtarma becerileri önem kazanmış ve zamanla insanlar sevimli köpeklerden sadece dostluk talep etmeye başlamış görünüyor.

Dalmaçyalı

Dalmaçyalı

Modern Köpekler boy, davranış ve fiziksel özellikler açısından diğer tüm evcil hayvan türlerinden daha fazla ırka sahipler. Aslında bilimsel açıdan köpek ırkları ve köpek türleri kavramları birbirlerinden çok farklı anlamda kullanılmakta. Köpek türleri genler ve fonksiyonel özellikler ile, köpek ırkları ise kalıtsal bazı karakteristik farklarla belirlenir. Köpek türlerinin bu kadar çok çeşitlenmesindeki en büyük sebeplerden biri yapay seçilim adı verilen evrim faktörü. Yapay seçilim, akıllı bir canlı olan insanoğlunun kendi istek ve amaçları doğrultusunda köpekleri kontrollü olarak çiftleştirmesi sonucu olmakta, normal koşullarda hayatta kalmaları zor olan cinslerin bile insan faktörü sayesinde yaşamalarının sağlanması ile meydana gelmektedir.

Shiba

Shiba


Labrador

Labrador

Köpek Irkları

Türkçe ve İngilizce İsimleri
Affenpinscher : Affenpinscher
Afgan Tazısı : Afghan Hound
Aidi : Aidi
Airedale Teriyeri : Airedale Terrier
Akbaş : Akbash Dog
Akita : Akita Inu
Alabay : Alabay
Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog : Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog
Alaskan Husky : Alaskan Husky
Alaskan Klee Kai : Alaskan Klee Kai
Alaska Malamutu : Alaskan Malamute
Alman Çoban Köpeği, : German Shepherd Dog
Alman Kısa Tüylü Pointeri : German Shorthaired Pointer
Alman Pinscher : German Pinscher
Alman Telsi Tüylü Puanteri : German Wirehaired Pointer
Alpine Dachsbracke : Alpine Dachsbracke
Alsatian Shepalute : Alsatian Shepalute
Altdeutscher Hütehund : Old German Cattledog
American Akita : American Akita
American Bulldog : American Bulldog
Amerikan Cocker Spaniel : American Cocker Spaniel
Amerikan Eskimo Köpeği : American Eskimo Dog
Amerikan Fokshaundu : American Foxhound
American Hairless Terrier : American Hairless Terrier
Amerikan Pit Bull Terrier : American Pit Bull Terrier
Amerikan Staffordshire teryesi : American Staffordshire Terrier
Amarican Toy Terrier : American Toy Terrier
Amerikan Su Spanyeli : American Water Spaniel
Anatolian Greyhound : Anatolian Greyhound
Anglo-Francais De Petite Venerie : Medium-sized Anglo-French Hound
Appenzeller Sennenhund : Appenzeller Sennenhund
Ariégeois : Ariege Hound
Australian Cattle Dog : Australian Cattle Dog
Australian Kelpie : Australian Kelpie
Australian Shepherd : Australian Shepherd
Australian Silky Terrier : Australian Silky Terrier
Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog : Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog
Australian terrier : Australian terrier
Azawakh : Azawakh
Bangkaew Dog : Bangkaew Dog
Barbet : Barbet
Bardino : Bardino
Borzoy (Rus tazısı) : Barzoï
Basenji : Basenji
Basset artésien normand : Norman Artesian Basset
Basset bleu de Gascogne : Blue Gascony Basset
Basset Fauve de Bretagne : Fawn Brittany Basset
Base : Basset Hound
Batı Highland beyaz teryesi : West Highland White Terrier
Bayerischer Gebirgsschweißhund : Bavarian Mountain Hound
Beagle : Beagle
Bearded Collie : Bearded Collie
Beauceron : Beauceron
Bedlington terrier : Bedlington terrier
Belçika çoban köpeği : Belgian Shepherd
Brüksel griffonu : Brussels Griffon
Bergamasco : Bergamasco
Berger Blanc Suisse : White Swiss Shepherd
Berger Picard : Picardy Shepherd
Berger des Pyrénées : Pyrenean Sheepdog
Berner Sennenhund : Bernese Mountain Dog
Bolognese : Bichon Frisé
Bichon Havanais : Havanese
Black and Tan Coonhound : Black and Tan Coonhound
Tchiorny Terrier : Black Russian Terrier
Blue Picardy Spaniel : Blue Picardy Spaniel
Bluetick Coonhound : Bluetick Coonhound
Boerboel : Boerboel
Bohemian Spotted Dog : Bohemian Spotted Dog
Bokser : Boxer
Bichon bolonais : Bolognese
Bolonka franzuska : Bolonka franzuska
Bolonka Zwetna :
Border Collie : Border Collie
Border Terrier : Border Terrier
Bosanski Ostrodlaki Gonic Barak : Bosnian Coarse-Haired Hound
Boston Terrier : Boston Terrier
Bouvier des Flandres : Bouvier des Flandres
Fransız Buldoğu : French Bulldog
Boykin Spaniel : Boykin Spaniel
Braque francais type Pyrenees : French Pointing Dog – Pyrenean type
Bracco Italiano : Bracco Italiano
Brandlbracke : Austrian Black and Tan Hound
Braque d’ Auvergne : Auvergne Pointing Dog
Braque du Bourbonnais : Bourbonnais Pointing Dog
Braque Saint-Germain : Braque Saint-Germain
Bretagne epanyölü : Brittany Spaniel
Brie çoban köpeği : Briard
Briquet Griffon Vendeen : Medium Vendeen Griffon
Broholmer : Broholmer
İngiliz Buldoğu : Bulldog
Bull Terrier : Bull Terrier
Bulmastif : Bullmastiff
Ca de Bou fr: dogue de Majorque : Majorca Mastiff
Ca de Bestiar : Majorca Shepherd Dog
Cairn Terrier : Cairn Terrier
Can de Palleiro : Galician Palleiro Dog, Palleiro Shepherd Dog, Galician Cattledog, Palleiro
Canaan Dog : Canaan Dog
Canadian Inuit Dog : Canadian Inuit Dog, Canadian Eskimo Dog
Cane Corso Italiano : Cane Corso, Italian Corso Dog
Cane da pastore Maremmano-Abruzzese : Maremma and Abruzzes Sheepdog
Caniche, Pudel, : Poodle
Cão Fila de São Miguel : Azores Cattle Dog
Cao de Serra de Aires : Portuguese Sheepdog
Caravan hound : Caravan Hound
Carolina Dog : Carolina Dog
Catahoula Leopard Dog : Catahoula Leopard Dog
Catahoula Bulldog : Catahoula Bulldog
Caucasian Ovcharka : Caucasian Ovcharka, Caucasian Mountain Dog
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel : Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
Central Asian Shepherd Dog : Central Asia Shepherd Dog
Ceský fousek : Bohemian wire-haired Pointing Griffon
Cesky-Terier : Cesky Terrier
Čierny šery :
Československý vlčiak : Czechoslovakian Wolfdog
Chart Polski : Polish Greyhound, Polish Sighthound
Chesapeake Bay Retriever : Chesapeake Bay Retriever
Chien de Montagne des Pyrénées, Patou : Pyrenean Mountain Dog
Chien de Berger Belge, Groenendael : Belgian Shepherd Groenendael
Chien de Berger Belge, Laekenois : Belgian Shepherd Laekenois
Chien de Berger, Malinois : Belgian Shepherd Malinois
Chien de Berger Belge, Tervuren : Belgian Shepherd Tervuren
Cão da serra da Estrela : Estrela Mountain Dog
Cao de castro laboreiro : Portugese Cattle Dog
Chien de Saint-Hubert : Bloodhound
Chien d’Artois : Artois Hound
Chihuahua : Chihuahua
Chinese Crested Dog : Chinese Crested Dog
Chinook : Chinook
Chodsky pes : Bohemian Shepherd
Chortaj :
Chow Chow : Chow Chow
Ciobanesc Romanesc Carpatin : Romanian Carpathian Shepherd Dog
Ciobanesc Romanesc de Bucovina : Romanian de Bucovina Shepherd Dog
Ciobanesc Romanesc Mioritic : Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog
Cirneco dell’Etna : Cirneco dell’Etna
Clumber Spaniel : Clumber Spaniel
Çoban Köpeği : Anatolian Shepherd Dog
Cockapoo : Cockapoo
Continental Toy Spaniel Papillon : Papillon
Coton de Tulear : Coton de Tulear
Crete Hound : Cretan Hound
Cursinu : Cursinu
Curly Coated Retriever : Curly Coated Retriever
Dachshund, Dackel, Teckel : Dachshund
Dalmaçyalı : Dalmatian
Dandie Dinmont Terrier : Dandie Dinmont Terrier
Dansk-Svensk Gaardshund : Danish/Swedish Farm Dog
Deerhound : Deerhound
Deutsche Bracke : German Hound
Danua : Great Dane
Deutsch-Langhaar : German Longhaired Pointer
Deutsch Stichelhaar : German Rough-haired Pointing Dog
Deutscher Spitz : German Spitz
Deutscher Wachtel : German Spaniel
Do-Khyi : Tibetan Mastiff
Dobermann : Doberman Pinscher
Dogo : Argentine Dogo
Dogo Canario : Canary Dog
Dogue de Bordeaux : Dogue de Bordeaux, French Mastiff
Drentse Patrijshond : Dutch Partridge Dog
Drever : Drever
Dunker : Norwegian Hound
Elo : Elo
English Cocker Spaniel : English Cocker Spaniel
English Coonhound : English Coonhound
İngiliz fokshaundu : English Foxhound
English-Springer-Spaniel : English Springer Spaniel
İngiliz seteri : English Setter
English Toy Terrier : English Toy Terrier, King Charles Spaniel
Entlebucher Sennenhund : Entelbuch Mountain Dog
Epagneul Français : French Spaniel
Epagneul Picard : Picardy Spaniel
Epagneul de Pont-Audemer : Pont Audemer Spaniel
Erdélyi Kopó : Transylvanian Hound
Eurasier : Eurasier
Fila Brasileiro : Brazilian Mastiff
Flat Coated Retriever : Flat-Coated Retriever
Foksterye : Fox Terrier
Galgo español fr:lévrier espagnol : Spanish Greyhound
Gammel Dansk Hønsehund : Old Danish Pointer
Glen of Imaal Terrier : Glen of Imaal Terrier
Golden Retriever : Golden Retriever
Gończy Polski : Polish Hunting Dog, Polish Scenthound
Gordon Setter : Gordon Setter
Gos-d’Atura-Catala : Catalan Sheepdog
Grand anglo-français tricolore : Great Anglo-French Tricolour Hound
Grand anglo-français blanc et orange : Great Anglo-French White and Orange Hound
Grand anglo-français blanc et noir : Great Anglo-French White and Black Hound
Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen : Large Vendeen Griffon Basset
Grand Griffon Vendeen :
Grand Bleu de Gascogne : Great Gascony Hound, Great Gascony Blue
Grønlandshund : Greenland Dog
Greyhound : Greyhound
Griffon Fauve de Bretagne : Fawn Brittany Griffon
Griffon bleu de Gascogne : Blue Gascony Griffon
Griffon d’arrêt à poil dur Korthals : Wirehaired Pointing Griffon, Korthals Griffon
Griffon Nivernais : Griffon Nivernais
Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund fr:Grand bouvier Suisse : Greater Swiss Mountain Dog
Haldenstovare : Halden Hound
Hamiltonstövare : Hamilton Hound
Hannoverscher Schweisshund : Hanover Hound
Harrier : Harrier
Hellinikos Ichnilatis : Hellenic Hound
Hokkaido (dog) : Hokkaido inu
Hollandse Herdershond : Dutch Shepherd Dog
Hollandse Smoushond : Dutch Smoushond
Hovawart : Hovawart
Hrvatski ovčar : Croatian Sheepdog
Ioujnorousskaîa Ovtcharka : South Russian Ovcharka
Huntaway : Huntaway
Irish Red And White Setter : Irish Red And White Setter
Irish Setter : Irish Setter
Irish Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier : Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier
İrlanda Teriyeri : Irish Terrier
İrlanda su spanyölü : Irish Water Spaniel
İrlanda kurt köpeği : Irish Wolfhound
Islenskur Fjárhundur fr:Chien de berger islandais : Icelandic Sheepdog
Istarski kratkodlaki gonič : Istrian short-haired Hound
Istarski oštrodlaki gonič : Istrian coarse-haired Hound
Jack Russell Terrier : Jack Russell Terrier
Jagdterrier : German Hunting Terrier
Jämthund : Swedish Elkhound
Japon köpeği : Japanese Chin, Japanese Spaniel
Kai : Kai
Kangal köpeği : Kangal Dog
Karakatschan : Karakatschan
Karjalankarhukoira : Karelian bear dog
Karelo-Finnish Laika, Finlandskaja, Karelskaja, : Karelo-Finnish Laika
Kraški ovčar : Karst Shepherd
Kerry Blue Terrier : Kerry Blue Terrier
Kintamani : Kintamani
King Charles Spaniel : King Charles Spaniel
Kishu Inu : Kishu
Komondor : Komondor
Kooikerhondje : Kooikerhondje
Korean Jindo : Korean Jindo
Kritikos Lagonikos, Kretahund : Kretahound
Kromfohrlander : Kromfohrlander
Kuvasz : Kuvasz
Kyi Leo :
Labradoodle : Labradoodle
Labrador Retriever : Labrador Retriever
Lagotto Romagnolo : Lagotto Romagnolo
Lakeland Terrier : Lakeland Terrier
Lancashire Heeler : Lancashire Heeler
Landseer : Landseer
Lapinporokoira : Lapinporokoira, Lapponian Herder
Leonberger : Leonberger
Lhasa Apso : Lhasa Apso
Lucas Terrier : Lucas Terrier
Lundehund : Norwegian Lundehund
Lupo Italiano :
Lurcher : Lurcher
Maltese , bichon maltais : Maltese
Magyar Agar : Hungarian Greyhound
Vizsla : Hungarian Vizsla
Manchester Terrier : Manchester Terrier
Maneto :
Markiesje : Dutch Tulip Dog
Mastiff : Mastiff
Mastín del Pirineo : Pyrenean Mastiff
Mastín español fr:mâtin espagnol : Spanish Mastiff
Middleasian greyhound – Tazi : Middleasian greyhound – Tazi
Miniature Australian Shepherd : Miniature Australian Shepherd
Miniatur Pinscher : Miniature Pinscher
Moscow Watchdog : Moscow Watchdog
Münsterländer : Munsterlander
Mudi : Mudi
Neapolitan Mastiff : Neapolitan Mastiff
Newfoundland : Newfoundland
Nihon Supittsu : Japanese Spitz
Norrbottenspets : Nordic Spitz
Norsk Buhund : Norwegian Buhund
Norsk Elghund : Norwegian Elkhound
Norfolkterrier : Norfolk Terrier
Norwichterrier : Norwich Terrier
Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever : Nova Scotia Duck-Tolling Retriever
Ogar Polski : Polish Hound
Olde English Bulldogge : Olde English Bulldogge
Old English Sheepdog : Old English Sheepdog
Österreichischer Pinscher : Austrian Pinscher
Otterhound : Otterhound
Parson Russell Terrier : Parson Russell Terrier
Pastor Garafiano : Garafiano Shepherd
Patterdale terrier : Patterdale terrier
Piccolo Levriero Italiano : Italian Greyhound
Pekingese : Pekingese
Perro de Agua Español : Spanish Water Dog
Perro Cimarrón : Cimarron
Perro Pastor Vasco : Basque Shepherd Dog
Perro sin pelo del Perú : Peruvian Hairless Dog
Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen : Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen
Petit bleu de Gascogne : Small Blue Gascony Hound
Petit chien lion : Löwchen
Pharaoh Hound : Pharaoh Hound
Plott Hound : Plott Hound
Plummer Terrier : Plummer Terrier
Podenco andaluz : Andalusian Hound
Podenco Canario : Canarian Warren Hound
Podenco Ibicenco Ibizan Podenco : Ibizan Hound
Podengo Português Portuguese Podengo : Portuguese Podengo
Pointer : Pointer
Poitevin : Poitevin
Polski Owczarek Nizinny : Polish Lowland Sheepdog
Polski Owczarek Podhalanski : Tatra Shepherd Dog
Porcelaine : Porcelaine
Portekiz su köpeği : Portuguese Water Dog
Perdigueiro Português : Portuguese Pointer
Pražský krysařík : Prague Ratter
Pudelpointer : Pudelpointer
Pug : Pug
Puli : Puli
Pumi : Pumi
Rampur Hound : Rampur Hound
Rat Terrier : Rat Terrier
Rafeiro do Alentejo : Alentejo Mastiff
Rajapalayam Hound : Rajapalayam Hound
Ratonero Andaluz : Andalusian Mouse-Hunting Dog
Redbone Coonhound : Redbone Coonhound
Rhodesian Ridgeback : Rhodesian Ridgeback
Rottweiler : Rottweiler
Collie : Rough Collie
Russian Spaniel : Russian Spaniel
Russo-European Laika : Russo-European Laika
Russkiy Toy : Russian Toy Terrier
Saarlooswolfhond : Saarlooswolfhond
Samoyed : Samoyed
Gazel tazısı : Saluki
Sarplaninac : Sarplaninac
Schapendoes : Dutch Schapendoes
Schiller Hound : Schiller Hound
Schipperke : Schipperke
Sealyham Terrier : Sealyham Terrier
Shetland Sheepdog : Shetland Sheepdog
Scottish Terrier : Scottish Terrier
Schnauzer : Schnauzer
Segugio italiano : Italian Hound
Shar-Pei : Shar Pei
Shiba Inu : Shiba Inu
Shih-Poo : Shih-Poo
Shih-Tzu : Shih Tzu
Shikoku : Shikoku
Shiloh shepherd : Shiloh Shepherd
Sibirya kurdu : Siberian Husky
Silken Windhound : Silken Windhound
Skye Terrier : Skye Terrier
Slovenský kopov : Slovakian Hound
Slovenský hrubosrstý stavač : Slovakian Wire-haired Pointing Dog
Slovensky Cuvac : Slovakian Chuvach
Spinone Italiano : Spinone Italiano
Sloughi : Sloughi
Smaland-Stövare : Smalands Hound
Smooth coated collie : Smooth Collie
Srpski Gonic : Serbian Hound
Srpski Trobojni Gonic : Serbian Tricolour Hound
Stabyhoun : Stabyhoun
Staffordshire Bull Terrier : Staffordshire Bull Terrier
Saint Bernard : St. Bernard dog
Steirische Rauhhaarbracke : Styrian coarse-haired Hound
Suomenajokoira : Finnish Hound
Suomenlapinkoira : Finnish Lapphund
Suomenpystykorva : Finnish Spitz
Sussex Spaniel : Sussex Spaniel
Svensk Lapphund : Swedish Lapphund
Schweizerischer Niederlaufhund : Small Swiss Hound
Schweizer Laufhund : Swiss Hound
Taigan : Taigan
Taiwan Dog, Formosan Dog : Taiwan Dog
Tamaskan : Tamaskan Dog
Terrier Brasileiro : Brasilian Terrier
Tesem : Tesem
Tibetan Spaniel : Tibetan Spaniel
Tornjak : Bosnian -Herzegovinian -Croatian Shepherd Dog
Tosa inu : Tosa Inu, Tosa
Toy Manchester Terrier : Toy Manchester Terrier
Treeing Walker Coonhound : Treeing Walker Coonhound
Thai-Ridgeback : Thai Ridgeback
Tibetan terrier : Tibetan Terrier
Tiroler Bracke : Tyrolean Hound
Västgötaspets : Swedish Vallhund
Volpino : Volpino Italiano
Vostotchno-Sibirskaïa Laïka : East Siberian Laika
Waeller : Waeller
Weimaraner : Weimaraner
Welsh Corgi Cardigan : Welsh Corgi (Cardigan)
Welsh Corgi Pembroke : Welsh Corgi (Pembroke)
Welsh Springer Spaniel : Welsh Springer Spaniel
Welsh Terrier : Welsh Terrier
Westfalenterrier : Westfal Terrier
Westphälische Dachsbracke : Westphalian Dachsbracke
Wetterhond : Wetterhond
Whippet : Whippet
White English Bulldog : White English Bulldog
Xoloitzquintle : Xoloitzquintle, Perro Chino Peruano
Yakutian Laika : Yakutian Laika
Yorkshire Teriyeri : Yorkshire terrier
Zapadno-Sibirskaïa Laïka : West Siberian Laika

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